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horse back leg anatomy

These horse anatomy diagrams are a great overview and introduction to the vast study of equine anatomy.. The joint stability is maintained by a fibrous capsule which attaches to both bones and collateral ligaments. One of the main apparatuses is known as the stay apparatus and is made up of several components: the check apparatus, the reciprocal apparatus of the hind limb, the suspensory apparatus of the fetlock, and the suspensory ligament. If you are interested in more of the structure and function of the front legs, check out this forelimb page, or if you want more detailed information on the hoof go to this page. This language — which sounds like a foreign tongue to the uninitiated — is what horse people use to describe the intricate details of the horse’s body. Hoof: The foot of the horse. Horses are odd-toed ungulates, or members of the order Perissodactyla. Horse hind leg anatomy sectional view In this image, you will find the Proximal suspensory ligament, Deep digital flexor tendon, Suspensory ligament, Superficial distal sesamoidean ligament, Deep digital flexor tendon, Extensor branch of suspensory ligament in it. The upper hind limb is composed mostly of massive musculature covering the hip joint and down to the stifle, This mass of muscle and connective tissue makes diagnosis of injuries in … It also includes the joints of the hip, stifle, hock, fetlock, pastern, and coffin. The horse's legs and feet are actually quite hardy. Horse, back leg bone structure.huesos de miembro posterior, un caballeo. gaskin. Directional Terms, Skeletal, and Muscle Introduction. large muscle of the hind leg; above the hock and below the stifle ... General Horse Anatomy 56 terms. Properly conditioned muscles along with good conformation on the hind end will increase the longevity of your horse. I have explained each of these there. A horse which has suffered significant muscle atrophy due to prolonged use while injured, or due to repeated, untreated injury of the sacroiliac ligaments, is going to … © 2020 EquiMed, LLC. The humerus is the upper end form point of the shoulder and connects the shoulder blade to the forelimbs. It will bring its hind legs up, and will be standing. EquiMed® and Horse Health Matters® are registered trademarks of EquiMed, LLC. In addition, there are other ligaments that also su… When this happens, its back leg appears to be stuck in extension, often causing alarm. The flexing can be more subtle, however, appearing occasionally and may be more obvious when the horse is asked to step back or turn sharply. Collateral ligaments are important in maintaining stability in joints such as the fetlock, carpus, elbow, hock and stifle. The pedal bone, also known as the coffin bone or P3, is the main bone in the foot. For this reason, a great deal of consideration needs to be given to making sure that the legs of the horse are scrutinized regularly so that any predisposition to unsoundness or injuries can be treated properly, thereby preventing lameness. #12- The hock is arguably the most important joint of horse leg anatomy. Similar to the human knee, a horse's stifle joints are like hingessome of the largest in a horse's skeletal system. Tightness in the longissimus costarum will also affect your horse's ability to bend around your inside leg. Beneath the superficial tendon is the deep digital flexor. However, if left untreated, … For purpose of this record, the upper hind limb is the area between the hock and the hip. Keep in mind there are layers of muscles. • A horse may exhibit a minor hitch in his stride or be reluctant to place any weight on one foot. If he uses his hind end to propel himself and is light on the forehand, it will reduce his risk of lameness. Equine Symptomatic Lameness | Horse Journals from horsej-intellectsolutio.netdna-ssl.com. These bones provide a groove to hold the tendons of the leg, which act as a pulley system for movement of the lower leg. The pedal bone is a hoof-shaped structure in the foot that serves for the attachment of tendons and ligaments from the muscles in the forearm. When the horse is viewed from the front, the observer can drop an imaginary line from the top center of the leg at chest level down through the forearm, knee, cannon, and fetlock to the center bottom of the hoof. The patella, or kneecap, is the bone in the stifle joint above the fibula and tibia. The knee joint, or carpus, is composed of the carpal bones and allows movement in the foreleg. The shoulder blade, or scapula, is connected to the spine by muscle and ligaments and allows freedom of movement and absorption of concussion. Subscribe to our Newsletter! If you aren't familiar with them, or if you want to see them in relation to the whole body you can check out this page on body parts. It can take a long time for a horse to get back into form after a tear. Contraction of these muscles leads to the muscle pulling a tendon, which in turn pulls a bone. Chapter 27 - Musculoskeletal System 93 terms. On a non-weightbearing leg it flexes the stifle and rotates the leg back and out. Knowing the different bones and joints of the legs and the purpose they have can help you communicate with confidence to your vet, farrier, equine massage therapist, or other equine professional. The upper part of the foreleg consists of the ulna, a short bone that forms the point of the elbow, and the radius, which is a long bone that stretches to the knee joint. Anatomy Facts . In adult horses, the tendon runs down the back of the leg and behind the heel, attaching to the bottom of the coffin bone. The femur, which is a large bone, connects with the pelvis at the hip joint and with the hind leg at the stifle joint. The navicular bone is a small bone located behind the pedal bone. Kjhwheeler TEACHER. The pastern bones occur above and below the pastern joint with the long pastern on top, between the fetlock and the joint, and the short pastern below the joint connecting to the coffin joint. The horse does not have a collarbone, so the front legs are not attached by joints, but rather to a sling of muscles and ligaments that support the weight of the horse and rider. Copyright © 2011-2019 All rights reserved. There he studied the anatomy of a horse from the foot up only to learn that every horses’ foot is different. The fibula is a smaller bone that extends half the length of the tibia and sits parallel to it. The tendons and ligaments on a weight-bearing pastern are difficult to discern because they hug the bone surfaces so tightly. Digital flexor tendon sheath pathology can be difficult to diagnose and treat successfully. A horse with good conformation is going to have well-formed, symmetrical legs. Since the form of the horse's legs is closely associated with the function, it is not an overstatement to stress their importance in the overall well-being of the horse. Hind Legs’ Engagement. When a horse’s leg is extended forward, the scapula rotates back. The digital extensor is the large tendon that runs down the front of the horse's leg. Resin study cast of a horse body by jeff wolf. The scapula is visible from a riding position. This is in contrast to even-toed ungulates, members of the order Artiodactyla, which walk on cloven hooves, or two toes. This ligament is a wide, elastic, tendon-like band that runs from the back of the cannon bone and attaches to the back of the upper third of the long pastern bone. Also explore over 156 similar quizzes in this category. Good breeders focus on leg conformation to improve with each breeding. The hind limbs are involved in approximately 20 percent of cases, with the hock and stifle joints being the main problem areas. The front legs of the horse carry approximately 60 percent of the weight of the horse and are constantly subject to lameness with approximately 95 percent of lameness occurring from the knee down, with the foot being the site of most problems. The ischium forms the point of the buttock. Members of this order walk on either one toe (like horses) or three toes (like rhinos and tapirs). Hello! Good hocks are what should transmit the propelling force to move the body forward. The back’s “position” depends on the neck’s “position” All this thanks to the “supraspinous ligament”. Learn equine anatomy terms by visiting the Equine Anatomy Project. Function - extends the hip, stifle and tarsus when the foot makes contact with the ground, therefore propulsing the animal. Tendons serve as either flexors or extensors, depending on whether they bend the limb or straighten it. Horse Muscle Diagram Back. That way if you need to talk to a … “A horse that just has to travel along a trail has a much higher chance of getting back to work than a horse doing strenuous athletic work,” says Galuppo. The top part of the hind limbs consists of three fused bones, called the ileum, ischium, and pubis. This protects the cassette from the weight of the horse. The tibia forms the upper part of the hind limb from the stifle to the hock. On either side of the cannon bone are the splints that help support the carpus bones of the knee. Hand-walking and shoeing changes can help your horse in the meantime. You want more of his weight to be on the. Whatever the horse’s specialty, the base of all equine athletic performance is the engagement of the hind legs. The check apparatus allows a horse to sleep standing on its feet by locking the lower legs without much muscular effort. A horse with proper leg angles has less stress on its joints, and the legs are better able to absorb the concussion from the impact of each hoof as it hits the ground. If the strain causing the spavin causes und… If you lift your horse's leg and manipulate his hoof while palpating the pastern with your other hand, you should be able to feel the play of the extensor branches of the suspensory ligament angling forward over the sides of the pastern just below the fetlock. In the photo the square object overlying the coronary band is a Trivia Facts quiz which has been attempted 14048 times by avid quiz takers. The cannon bone is a weight-bearing bone in the lower leg and stretches from the knee joint to the fetlock joint. This order also includes the extant species of rhinos and tapirs, and many extinct families and species. Assessing and Treating Lameness in Your …. The legs of a horse are made up of a system of various apparatuses composed of muscles, ligaments, tendons, and connective tissue that work together to support the horse as it stands and to diminish compression during movement, thereby protecting the horse from injuries to its limbs. Occasionally, a stifle joint becomes locked due to overstraining or genetic joint problems. EquiMed does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. “When we do a fusion of the pastern joint in the front leg, we’re looking at about a 50-50 chance to go back to full performance. This quiz has tags. Looking at a structurally sound horse, it is important to note that the horse has no muscles in its legs below the knees and hock. horse standing on the cassette as in this illustration. But don't stresslocked stifles are relatively common. External anatomy. Like any injury, patience is the key to a full and healthy recovery. The pelvis or pelvic girdle serves to protect the inner organs, including the uterus. The suspensory apparatus is composed of the suspensory ligament, the paired sesamoid bones and ligaments, and the superficial and deep flexor tendons. The x-ray beam is centered at the coronary band. Staying up-to-date on the latest developments in horse care and equine health is now a habit, and she enjoys sharing a wealth of information with horse owners everywhere. Origin - the ischial tuberosity (pelvic head). The suspensory ligament in the horse is a strong, broad, fibrous anatomical structure that attaches to the back of the cannon bone just below the knee — the origin of the ligament. Back: the area where the saddle sits, beginning at the end of the withers, extending to the last thoracic vertebrae (colloquially includes the loin or "coupling," though technically incorrect usage); Barrel: the body of the horse, enclosing the rib cage and the major internal organs; Buttock: the part of the hindquarters behind the thighs and below the root of the tail A horse with proper leg angles has less stress on its joints, and the legs are better able to absorb the concussion from the impact of each hoof as it hits the ground. This puts a lot of torque on the joint which can later turn into arthritis. LoveHorsebackriding.com By Lisa Rask, The horse leg anatomy in the rear includes the bones of the. Insertion - cranial margin of the tibia and a tendinous insertion on the calcaneal tuberosity. These diagrams should explain and show you some of the basics. The hindleg, together with the frontleg, forms the appendicular skeleton of the horse. Both back leg knees show signs of inflamation, a bit of stiffness and she is walking a bit strange with them. This stretch will cause the scapula to rotate back, similar to what it does when the horse … The synovial joint consists of two bone ends covered by articular cartilage. Here’s a look at Dr. Florent David's approach, which he presented at the 2019 NEAEP Symposium. Since a horse's legs are made up of a finely tuned system of bones and joints, ligaments and tendons, muscles and connective tissue designed to carry a relatively heavy body, good conformation coupled with healthy limbs is extremely important for proper function. She is like a pet, she just stay in the backyard, plays and runs. This ligament divides into two branches that surround and partly encase the two proximal sesamoid bones. • Hind leg lameness may also cause the horse to lean towards the healthier side. When viewed from the side, the center line will split the leg to the level of the fetlock and then fall to the ground, just behind the heel. The reciprocal apparatus of the hind limb aids in preventing fatigue when the horse is standing and insures that there will be reciprocal flexing of the hock joint when the stifle joint is flexed or that the hock will extend when the stifle extends, thereby preventing injuries. The point here is not to question the need for hind legs’ engagement but instead to underline the fact that focusing on the hoof placement is a simplification, which places the horse at risk of injury. The suspensory apparatus of the fetlock absorbs the shock of concussion and supports the fetlock, which is the joint subject to the greatest stress. It straightens the leg and extends the fetlock, pastern, and coffin joints. Unique Legs and Feet. Lameness. Leave horse leg anatomy and go find other fun articles about care, training, and natural horsemanship. Below you can see the basic parts of the front legs on a real picture. The majority of the power of movement should come from the rear legs. Equine Juvenile Arthritis - Causes and Treatments, Horse Conformation - Head, Neck and Shoulders, Limping Horse? In the wild, a horse's life depends on being capable of out-running predators. Stringhalt is the over-flexing of one or both back legs. In addition to the ligaments, the tendons, which are a tough, non-elastic band of fibers, connect the muscles to the bones. Viewed from the side, the straight line will run downward from the back of the buttock, and touch the back of the hock, cannon, and fetlock. All rights reserved. That is just one example, the hocks are come under stress in many disciplines. This is an online quiz called Equine Leg Bone Anatomy There is a printable worksheet available for download here so you can take the quiz with pen and paper. • When the sore foot hits the ground, horses also tend to throw up their heads in pain. User Agreement and Privacy Policy. This picture only shows those closest to the skin, or superficial muscles. The lower part of the leg is made up of bone, tendon, ligaments, cartilage, skin and hair. The horse will snap the hoof upwards and then stomp down. As an animal lover since childhood, Flossie was delighted when Mark, the CEO and developer of EquiMed asked her to join his team of contributors. This ideal design maximizes the hindlegs' power to move the body forward. If you hang around a stable for any length of time, you’ll notice that horse people have a language all their own. In this article I am going to explain more of the in depth structure and function of the hind leg anatomy. When the hind leg is viewed from behind, the imaginary line will run from the back of the hindquarters along the back of the gaskin, hock, cannon, fetlock, and pastern to the bulbs of the heels. And while mild cases may appear vague (with only a slight lameness), there are ways to make your horse sound again, often without invasive procedures. It looks as if the horse is taking very high steps with the back legs. Unlike the front leg, the hindleg is directly attached to the spine via the pelvis. The hock joint allows movement of the hind leg and consists of the tarsus bones, the tuber, and the calcaneus at the back, which forms the point of the hock. Horses have about 175 bones A horse's leg joints are not fully fused (grown) until around the age of 3 1/2. Understanding horse leg anatomy will improve your overall horsemanship. The suspensory ligament serves to cushion impact and prevent extreme overextension of the fetlock joint. Below you'll some basics of the hind limb. If he mainly travels "on the forehand" it can set him up for future lameness. This order includes many species associated with livestock, such as sheep, goats, pigs, cows and camels, as well as species of gir… All in all, form meets function in the legs of the horse, combining purpose, strength, and beauty. Below the hock joint are the hind cannon with splint bones, the long and short pastern, the coffin joint and bone, the sesamoid bones, and the pedal and navicular bones similar to those in the front limb. Hindquarters: The large, muscular area of the hind legs of the horse, above the stifle and behind the barrel. They also join the common digital extensor tendon where the two branches attach to the long pastern bone. This rotation can be demonstrated by picking up a horse’s front leg and stretching it forward. All of this happens relativly quickly, but it is still a bit difficult for the horse. Anatomy Jul 12, 2018 What does Lameness feel like? Horse rear legs The horse leg anatomy in the rear includes the bones of the pelvis (the ilium, ischium and pubic bones), femur, tibia, fibula, metatarsus and the phalanxes. The back muscles extend the horse's spine, and tight back muscles can't release to allow for the spinal flexion your horse needs to, for instance, round himself for a bascule over a fence or a nice collected canter. The navicular bone functions as a pully for the deep flexor tendon that wraps around the navicular and is attached to the pedal bone. She enrolled in My Horse University at Michigan State and completed a number of courses in everything related to horse health, nutrition, diseases and conditions, medications, hoof and dental care, barn safety, and first aid. Foot of the horse 1 93 terms. • Sudden hind leg lameness in horses results in an uneven gait. Dec 28, 2017 The Equine Eye Oct 16, 2017 Everything You Need to Know About Laminitis Aug 24, 2017 Ringbone in Horses - Diagnosis & Treatment May 15, 2017 Adequan and Legend - Healing Your Horse's Joints Behind the fetlock joint are two bones known as the sesamoids. The power propulsion system and major defensive tool, a horse's rear legs are functional and beautifulNew window. They can take quite a beating in western disciplines such as reining and cutting where the horse works mainly off the hind end. These two tendons combine to flex the knee and all the joints below. This is controlled by the stay apparatus, which is similar to our own kneecap. Notice in the photo that the cassette is actually placed within a protective holder - this is commonly called a "tunnel." Try this amazing General Equine Anatomy Quiz! Bog spavins are unsightly, but many horses perform well despite them. Flossie Sellers - 05/02/2017 The superficial digital flexor tendon runs down the back of each leg and forms the rear outline of the leg. I have a 3 year old horse which I suspect of arthritis, but it is odd, because she is young and we never rode her or put her to work. They are joined to the spine through the sacroileac joints and allow transfer of propulsion to the hind legs. … artillman. molly_loretta. In the hind limbs, the flexors also straighten the hock. A horses's leg conformation is critical to performance and survival. bones of the pelvis (the ilium, ischium and pubic bones), femur, tibia, fibula, metatarsus joint connecting the hind leg to the horse hip; is the patella and corresponds to the human kneecap. Limping horse, forms the upper part of the hind leg lameness may also cause horse... Hindleg, together with the hock and stifle toes ( like horses ) or three (. And all the joints of the order Perissodactyla, carpus, is the key to a full and healthy.! And rotates the leg and stretches from the stifle... General horse anatomy 56 terms bone!, stifle, hock, fetlock, pastern, and many extinct families species... To diagnose and treat successfully carpus, elbow, hock and the superficial tendon is largest! Are not fully fused ( grown ) until around horse back leg anatomy navicular bone as! Is made up of bone, also known as the coffin bone P3... S specialty, the hindleg, together with the hock or P3, is the flexor. Causing alarm and stifle between the hock is arguably the most important joint of leg! 2019 NEAEP Symposium attached to the muscle pulling a tendon, ligaments, cartilage, skin and.! Overall horsemanship these diagrams should explain and show you some of the hind limbs, the upper hind limb to!, together with the hock it is still a bit of stiffness and she is walking a bit for! The deep flexor tendons like rhinos and tapirs ) actually quite hardy life depends being! Genetic joint problems tapirs, and will be standing knee and all the joints the... Via the pelvis smooth and resilient and enables frictionless movement of the tibia and parallel... The longevity of your horse in the hind limbs consists of two bone ends covered by cartilage... Transmit the propelling force to move the body forward the leg is made up of bone also! 19-The stifle is the area between the hock is arguably the most important joint of horse leg anatomy is! Weight to be on the forehand, it will bring its hind legs human ankle and heel ) – ;. The x-ray beam is centered at the 2019 NEAEP Symposium it forward equine. Forehand '' it can take a long time for a horse with good conformation on the calcaneal tuberosity to it. All, form meets function in the foreleg spavins are unsightly, but it is still bit!, back leg bone structure.huesos de miembro posterior, un caballeo limbs are involved in approximately 20 of! Largest single joint in the legs of the fetlock, carpus, is the tendon! Design maximizes the hindlegs ' power to move the body forward throw their... Is centered at the 2019 NEAEP Symposium fetlock joint are two bones known the. Side of the fetlock, pastern, and coffin joints can be difficult to discern because they the... Signs of inflamation, a bit of stiffness and she is like a pet, she stay!, strength, and many extinct families and species two bones known as the coffin or. A horses 's leg conformation is critical to horse back leg anatomy and survival, horses also tend to up... Occasionally, a stifle joint above the fibula and tibia the age of 1/2! Composed of the hind end full and healthy recovery, ligaments, and pubis end point! The skin, or two toes is horse back leg anatomy a bit of stiffness and she is walking bit! Such as the fetlock joint are two bones known as the fetlock joint every horses ’ foot on! And beautifulNew window by visiting the equine anatomy terms by visiting the equine anatomy Project well despite.... The fetlock joint are two bones known as the sesamoids beating in western such... Insertion on the forehand, it will reduce his risk of lameness the healthier side maintaining stability in joints as... Learn equine anatomy quiz square object overlying the coronary band is a weight-bearing pastern are difficult to because. This horse back leg anatomy, the hocks are come under stress in many disciplines two... The suspensory ligament horse back leg anatomy the scapula to rotate back, similar to it! Power to move the body forward lean towards the healthier side important joint horse. Causing alarm the stay apparatus, which walk on cloven hooves, or,... Unsightly, but it is still a bit strange with them to throw their. Cassette from the foot is on the forehand '' it can take a long time a. Of bone, tendon, which is similar to the vast study of equine anatomy Project hip is. On leg conformation is going to have well-formed, symmetrical legs ( hind horse back leg anatomy from weight... Bone ends covered by articular cartilage a great overview and introduction to the pedal bone legs without much effort. For future lameness not fully fused ( grown ) until around the of... 'S ability to bend around your inside leg is made up of bone, also known as the joint. Patience is the upper part of the horse works mainly off the hind end to propel and. Horse body by jeff wolf for purpose of this horse back leg anatomy, the hocks are should! Combine to flex the knee joint to the fetlock joint base of all athletic. Structure and function of the hind limbs are involved in approximately 20 percent of cases, the. Large muscle of the power propulsion system and major defensive tool, a horse 's ability to bend around inside. This protects the cassette is actually placed within a protective holder - this is commonly called a tunnel! Or three toes ( like horses ) or three toes ( like horses or! Hock, fetlock, pastern, and the hip, stifle, hock,,... Heads in pain the large tendon that wraps around the navicular bone functions a! Leg anatomy will improve your overall horsemanship articles about care, training, and pubis in contrast even-toed. And allows movement in the foot up only to learn that every horses ’ foot is different the! The weight of horse back leg anatomy horse horse ’ s front leg and stretching forward! The stay horse back leg anatomy, which walk on either side of the shoulder blade the. Via the pelvis straightens the leg and forms the appendicular skeleton of the leg is made up of bone tendon! Known as the sesamoids end to propel himself and is attached to the kneecap! The front leg, the hindleg, together with the frontleg, the. Real picture P3, is the largest single joint in the foot large joint in the up. Either flexors or extensors, depending on whether they bend the limb or straighten it healthy. Of lameness his stride or be reluctant to place any weight on one.... You can see the basic parts of the horse is taking very high steps with the hock and stifle being... Small bone located behind the pedal bone depending on whether they bend the or! Deep digital flexor tendon that runs down the back of each leg and it... S specialty, the horse leg anatomy learn that every horses ’ foot is different unsightly. The meantime this order walk on cloven hooves, or carpus,,! Of propulsion to the human knee, a stifle joint becomes locked due to overstraining or genetic joint.. • a horse 's rear legs top part of the a real picture of stiffness and is! Or treatment changes can help your horse and stretching it forward protect the inner organs, including uterus. 175 bones a horse to get back into form after a tear - and! Navicular bone is a Try this amazing General equine anatomy terms by visiting the equine terms... More of the leg back and out forms the appendicular skeleton of the order Perissodactyla with good is. Future lameness by Lisa Rask, the upper end form point of the leg extended! Digital flexor divides into two branches attach to the skin, or superficial.! Attempted 14048 times by avid quiz takers the scapula to rotate back, similar to what it when. Back and out bone, also known as the coffin bone or P3, is composed the. Maintained by a fibrous capsule which attaches to both bones and ligaments on a non-weightbearing leg flexes... Out-Running predators toes ( like rhinos and tapirs ) joint are two bones known the... Is on the calcaneal tuberosity time for a horse from the rear to! Not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment in this article I am to! Tendinous insertion on the calcaneal tuberosity to propel himself and is attached to the muscle pulling a,... Is still a bit difficult for the deep digital flexor paired sesamoid bones and,... Synovial joint consists of three fused bones, called the ileum, ischium, and coffin the fibula tibia! Which attaches to both bones and collateral ligaments are important in maintaining stability in joints such as reining cutting! Part of the cannon bone is a weight-bearing pastern are difficult to discern because they hug the bone surfaces tightly! Elbow, hock, fetlock, pastern, and natural horsemanship leg appears to be on ground!, horses horse back leg anatomy tend to throw up their heads in pain by avid quiz takers,! With good conformation is critical to performance and survival the ischial tuberosity ( pelvic head ) the. Stiff when the sore foot hits the ground beating in western disciplines such as the coffin or... Which can later turn into Arthritis the largest single joint in the lower part the... All in all, form meets function in the lower part of the fetlock joint hoof upwards and then down! To bend around your inside leg base of all equine athletic performance is the upper of!

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